Digital Trade Catalogues at the HHT
A collection of electronic resources selected from the trade catalogue collection of the Caroline Simpson Library & Research Collection. The collection includes trade literature related to house and garden design and interior furnishing, with a particular focus on Australia in the nineteenth century and comprising publications from manufacturers and merchants in Australia, England, Scotland, the United States, France, Germany, Italy and Spain. This selection of electronic resources covers a range of building materials as well as house fittings and furnishings.

These resources, and more, can also be accessed through the electronic record display link attached to relevant items in the library catalogue.
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Architectural ironwork
Architectural ironwork
"Sun" foundry illustrated catalogue / Stewart & Harley.
The firm of Stewart and Harley, manufacturers of architectural cast ironwork, was established in Adelaide, South Australia, in 1887 by Scottish born more...
The firm of Stewart and Harley, manufacturers of architectural cast ironwork, was established in Adelaide, South Australia, in 1887 by Scottish born emigrants Colin Stewart [1848-1917] and Allen Cameron Harley [1845-1932]. Stewart had served an apprenticeship with the Sun foundry in Glasgow and arrived in Adelaide in 1874 at age 26. He joined the Jones & Co Foundry, Jones purchasing the original Adelaide Foundry site on Gray Street, North Terrace in 1878. In 1886 a new partnership of Stewart, Jones & Co established the Sun Foundry at that premises.

Harley arrived in Adelaide in 1881, aged 36. He had been working as an ironmonger from the age of 14 and joined the firm of Fulton & Hutchinson, as a silent partner until that partnership was dissolved in 1882. He then worked as the Practical Manager of the Fulton & Co Foundry before joining Stewart in 1887 at the North Terrace woks. In 1896 the Sun Foundry was relocated to 68 Hindley Street, the partnership continuing until 1909. The business was then retained by the Harley family, trading as A.C. Harley & Co until 1926, when the firm was bought out by Forwood, Down & Co. In addition to this 1897 "Sun" foundry illustrated catalogue of architectural, sanitary and general castings and wrought ironwork, the Caroline Simpson Library & Research Collection also holds a 1914 A.C. Harley & Co illustrated catalogue.

Fashion, functionality and affordability were central to the popularity of ornamental ironwork in Australia and local foundries played an integral role in supply for housing schemes of the late 19th century. This 1897 trade catalogue demonstrates the diverse uses of cast ironwork and the choice of styles and patterns available through Australian manufacturers at that time. In particular, ornamental cast iron balconies and verandahs became an intrinsic part of Australian building, providing functional outdoor spaces that afforded protection from the local climate. The catalogue became a means by which to customise according to individual needs, while components such as columns and posts could be integrated with railings, panels and friezes etc, which incorporated a choice of motifs. Designs could be accurately re-produced at a fraction of the cost of hand-hammered wrought ironwork, ensuring widespread market appeal and accessibility. Amongst the firm's commissions were a number of commercial projects, including the verandahs of the Botanic Hotel, opposite the Adelaide Botanic Gardens in 1897 and the decorative columns of the Bagot, Shakes and Lewis Ltd Wool Store at Port Adelaide in 1908. [Marina Grilanc, September 2011]
Drawings of ranges, stoves, pipes, ornamental and general castings, &c / made by the General Iron Foundry Company Limited
The General Iron Foundry Co Ltd was a London manufacturer of wrought and cast iron goods from the mid 19th century. The firm was also engaged in the m more...
The General Iron Foundry Co Ltd was a London manufacturer of wrought and cast iron goods from the mid 19th century. The firm was also engaged in the manufacture and installation of cooking, heating and ventilating equipment and accessories. They had offices, warehouses and showrooms at 43 Upper Thames Street, London, in addition to the Lyons & Brooks' Wharves, 5 Broken Wharf and a factory at 9 Old Fish Street Hill from c1858. The firm participated in the International Exhibitions of London 1862 and Paris 1867, receiving a prize medal for excellence in workmanship in large cooking apparatus at London. During the 1870s the company expanded their interests to include the importation and manufacture of a range of marble chimney pieces and sales of Molines Patent wrought iron windows. By the early 1880s Samuel Rogers [1836-1919] had become manager, the firm expanding into safe manufacturing and cast-iron tube making. Among Britain's most prominent boilermakers and manufacturers and fitters of heating apparatus, the firm's operations remained at the same locations until c1963, by which time the General Construction & Engineering Company Ltd had emerged as an off-shoot from the original firm.

The technology of heating and ventilating developed from horticultural requirements to warm glass-houses in the early 19th century. The need for more efficient combustion of coal, for use in fireplace and chimney constructions, had led to the development of freestanding solid-fuel cast-iron stoves, steam and eventually hot water boilers and drought regulators. Introduced as early as the 1840s and 50s, General manufactured and fitted their cabin, shop, bath and harness room stoves, with their larger hot air stoves more commonly installed in church buildings and their larger kitchen ranges and hot water boilers installed in public and private institutions.

Mid 19th century improvements in casting techniques led to the development of more decorative ironwork and the increased use of architectural iron goods generally. The variety of sizes, styles and designs available in ornamental chimney pieces, staircases, balusters, railings, fences and window guards, illustrates manufacturing responses to changing fashions, increased affordability and widening demand across the British Empire. By the1850s cottage versions of ranges were available throughout Australian colonies, with modern closed ranges becoming increasingly common by the 1880s. New housing developments installed local and imported stoves, chimney pieces and architectural ironwork and inter-colonial and international exhibitions were particularly important in terms of household ironmongery, with cooking apparatus shown and advertised by suppliers and importers during the late Victorian period. [Marina Grilanc, September 2011]

Art metalwork
Art metalwork
Illustrated catalogue / Hart, Son, Peard & Co.
The eminent firm of Hart, Son, Peard & Co was established in London around 1866, through the merger of two businesses: Hart & Son and Peard & Jackson more...
The eminent firm of Hart, Son, Peard & Co was established in London around 1866, through the merger of two businesses: Hart & Son and Peard & Jackson. Hart & Son had been founded by Joseph Hart (b.1788) around 1840, manufacturing art metal for ecclesiastic and domestic use from premises at 53-58 Wych Street, the Strand, where he was joined in 1853 by Thomas Peard. Peard began his own business in 1860 and was then joined by Frederick Jackson, forming Peard & Jackson. The merged business specialised in brass, iron and silver ecclesiastical fittings, light fittings and a wide range of interior and exterior architectural cast iron and wrought iron work. They participated in a number of International Exhibitions as well as regional exhibitions throughout the Staffordshire and Birmingham areas and sponsored prizes to various Birmingham Art and Design Schools. A number of notable designers, including J.P. Seddon, B.J. Talbert, William Burgess and William Butterfield, worked for the Hart, Son, Peard & Co. and the company also completed many commissions for the architect Alfred Waterhouse.

The company had showrooms in Brook and Regent Streets, London, a factory in Drury Lane, a foundry in Birmingham which operated as the Art Metal Works from 1886 to 1913, and an additional foundry in Ryland Street, Birmingham known as the Islington Iron Foundry. After the retirement of Hart, the Birmingham locations were supervised by son Charles Hart [b.1814], while Jackson ran the company finances and Peard ran the London businesses, with all three businesses entering marks with the London Assay Office. The firm was registered as a limited liability company in 1893, C.J. Hart, T. Peard, F. Jackson and B.A.E. Hart remaining as Directors, merging with Gittins Craftsmen Ltd (formerly the Birmingham School of Handcrafts) in 1919, before ultimately closing in the late 1950s.

This 1877 catalogue of fittings for lighting was section 4 of a 7-part catalogue published by the firm between May 1871 and April 1885 It demonstrates the wide choice of decorative options offered by the manufacturer in the second half of the 19th century and their capacity to customise individual articles to suit gas, oil or candle power. The variety of floral, foliate, scroll, heraldic and grotesque motifs incorporated into the fittings were drawn from medieval designs and were a response to fashions influenced by mid 19th century Gothic Revivalism. The firm was largely known for production of ornate metal work, achieving a high level of workmanship via traditional hand wrought practices, rather than modern industrial methods of production.

This particular copy of the catalogue formed part of the trade library of Sydney art metal workers, James Castle & Sons, established in 1889 in King Street Newtown. Castle & Sons worked in brass, copper, bronze and iron and produced works for many of the projects undertaken by leading Sydney architects John Burcham Clamp, Sulman & Power and Robertson & Marks. Castle participated in the Sydney Arts and Crafts Exhibition of 1892, displaying ecclesiastic wrought brass-ware such as gas standards, brackets and pendants, hanging lamps and candelabra, clocks, door handles, finger-plates and lettering. The Caroline Simpson Library & Research Collection holds several other catalogues provenanced to Castle & Sons. [Marina Grilanc, September 2011]

Metal casements, stained glass, decorative ironwork / William Morris and Company (Ruskin House) Ltd.
William Morris & Company (Ruskin House) was established in 1899 by a man named William Morris. He was not the renowned textile designer, artist, writ more...
William Morris & Company (Ruskin House) was established in 1899 by a man named William Morris. He was not the renowned textile designer, artist, writer and socialist William Morris (1834-1896) associated with the pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood and the English arts and crafts movement but probably derived some commercial profile from the name. The firm specialised in stained glass and art metal work and operated from premises built in 1904 and called Ruskin House at 60 Rochester Row, Westminster, which housed three floors of departments engaged in design and manufacture. The firm was incorporated in 1906 to become William Morris & Company (Ruskin House) Limited, changing its name by 1920 to William Morris & Company (Westminster) Ltd and then Morris Westminster Guild by 1930. Stained glass commissions include the Windows for the Baptistry at the Church of St Peter, Hertfordshire, 1921 and noted Art Metal works included the bronze cases for the radiators in the Member's Entrance and Council Chambers of London County Hall, 1909, the Bassenthwaite WWI Memorial plaque, and the Oak boards for the WWI Memorial at the Inverness Royal Academy. The firm provided financial backing for the establishment of the Morris Art Bronze Foundry, Lambeth in 1921 and in 1927 acquired the Singer & Co foundry of Frome, renaming it the Morris Singer Co. In 1935 Morris Singer Co became part of the Pollard Group, undergoing several changes in ownership after 1946, with the name acquired by Art Founders Limited in 2005 and then by Zahra Modern Art Founders in 2010.

This c1909-1910 catalogue showcases the firm's broad range of stained glass, lead light and metal casement windows and includes detailed descriptions, prices and ordering information. Constituting a considerable share of the company's turnover, their patented casements were particularly popular, as they could be cleaned on both sides. Influenced by the philosophical principals of the Arts and Crafts Movement (1890-1930), the firm manufactured art metal work according to traditional practices of craftsmanship, in preference to modern industrial methods of production. Examples of architectural metal work, such as gates, fences, railings and lantern signs exhibit the high level of workmanship associated with wrought iron work, while their range of door furniture demonstrates the renewed fashion in ornate wrought ironwork for doors, inspired by 19th century Gothic Revivalism and the Arts and Crafts Movement.

The Caroline Simpson Library & Research Collection at the HHT has two copies of this catalogue, the second copy inscribed by William Morris to Herbert Smyrk [1861-1947], an English-born designer of stained glass windows and interior decoration. Smyrk established the Melbourne firm of Smyrk & Rogers in 1880, exhibiting ecclesiastic stained glass windows at the Adelaide Jubilee International Exhibition of 1887. Smyrk had a number of South Australian commissions in the 1880s and 1890s before returning to England around 1906 following the death of his wife. He became a principal artist for William Morris & Company for a few years before returning to Australia. [Marina Grilanc, September 2011] William Morris & Company (Ruskin House) was established in 1899 by a man named William Morris. He was not the renowned textile designer, artist, writer and socialist William Morris (1834-1896) associated with the pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood and the English arts and crafts movement but probably derived some commercial profile from the name. The firm specialised in stained glass and art metal work and operated from premises built in 1904 and called Ruskin House at 60 Rochester Row, Westminster, which housed three floors of departments engaged in design and manufacture. The firm was incorporated in 1906 to become William Morris & Company (Ruskin House) Limited, changing its name by 1920 to William Morris & Company (Westminster) Ltd and then Morris Westminster Guild by 1930. Stained glass commissions include the Windows for the Baptistry at the Church of St Peter, Hertfordshire, 1921 and noted Art Metal works included the bronze cases for the radiators in the Member's Entrance and Council Chambers of London County Hall, 1909, the Bassenthwaite WWI Memorial plaque, and the Oak boards for the WWI Memorial at the Inverness Royal Academy. The firm provided financial backing for the establishment of the Morris Art Bronze Foundry, Lambeth in 1921 and in 1927 acquired the Singer & Co foundry of Frome, renaming it the Morris Singer Co. In 1935 Morris Singer Co became part of the Pollard Group, undergoing several changes in ownership after 1946, with the name acquired by Art Founders Limited in 2005 and then by Zahra Modern Art Founders in 2010.

This c1909-1910 catalogue showcases the firm's broad range of stained glass, lead light and metal casement windows and includes detailed descriptions, prices and ordering information. Constituting a considerable share of the company's turnover, their patented casements were particularly popular, as they could be cleaned on both sides. Influenced by the philosophical principals of the Arts and Crafts Movement (1890-1930), the firm manufactured art metal work according to traditional practices of craftsmanship, in preference to modern industrial methods of production. Examples of architectural metal work, such as gates, fences, railings and lantern signs exhibit the high level of workmanship associated with wrought iron work, while their range of door furniture demonstrates the renewed fashion in ornate wrought ironwork for doors, inspired by 19th century Gothic Revivalism and the Arts and Crafts Movement.

The Caroline Simpson Library & Research Collection at the HHT has two copies of this catalogue, the second copy inscribed by William Morris to Herbert Smyrk [1861-1947], an English-born designer of stained glass windows and interior decoration. Smyrk established the Melbourne firm of Smyrk & Rogers in 1880, exhibiting ecclesiastic stained glass windows at the Adelaide Jubilee International Exhibition of 1887. Smyrk had a number of South Australian commissions in the 1880s and 1890s before returning to England around 1906 following the death of his wife. He became a principal artist for William Morris & Company for a few years before returning to Australia. [Marina Grilanc, September 2011]
Brass beds
Brass beds
Pattern book of improved patent metallic bedsteads, with patent dovetail joints, patent head and foot rails, and patent sacking / Peyton & Peyton
Peyton & Peyton were English manufacturers of bicycles, iron bedsteads and metallic furnishings, marketing to cabinet-makers, upholsterers, ironmonger more...
Peyton & Peyton were English manufacturers of bicycles, iron bedsteads and metallic furnishings, marketing to cabinet-makers, upholsterers, ironmongers and bedding merchants. The Bordesley Works was located in the metal-working town of Birmingham with convenient access to Staffordshire coal and iron resources. The firm began as Peyton and Harlow in 1852, becoming Peyton & Peyton in 1858. The firm held numerous patents, including the original 1841 Church & Harlow patent for 'Dovetail Joints', with casting of interlocking sections significantly improving manufacturing and construction methods. From a factory covering 2 acres of land, the firm manufactured everything from raw materials, rather than purchasing constituent parts, including castings, metal tubes, vases and casters and even the tools specific to their industry. The company exhibited in the International Exhibitions of London 1851 & 1862, Paris 1867, 1875 & 1878, Dublin 1865, Amsterdam 1869, Vienna 1873, Philadelphia 1876, Sydney 1879, Melbourne and Adelaide 1881 & 1887, Christchurch 1882 and Calcutta 1884, and was awarded many medals. The firm produced a number of catalogues, and this c1868 catalogue is one of 4 held in the Caroline Simpson Library & Research Collection at the HHT.

Peyton & Peyton had agents in Australia and New Zealand, exporting to Australia as early as 1858, with bedsteads also auctioned by Purkis & Lambert of George St, Sydney, NSW, and regular shipments to Victoria indicated from 1859 and Tasmania, Brisbane and Adelaide from the 1870s. Sydney importers John Lawler & Sons frequently advertised Peyton's four post, half-tester and French bedsteads in a variety of sizes and finishes. [Marina Grilanc, September 2011]
Furniture
Furniture
Art furnishers, upholsterers & decorators / David Jones & Co.
The David Jones name has long been associated with Sydney: as a retailer of fine merchandise and as the city's longest surviving department store. Th more...
The David Jones name has long been associated with Sydney: as a retailer of fine merchandise and as the city's longest surviving department store. The company began in 1838 when Welsh-born immigrant, David Jones (1793-1873), established a drapery business on the corner of George and Barrack Streets. For almost the whole period to 1980, a member of the Jones family remained at the head of the company.

Many department stores around the world, including David Jones, started in the drapery trade before expanding into other merchandising lines. In order to control supply lines and profit margins, a number of these same department stores became manufacturers of a range of goods. David Jones was manufacturing furniture from as early as 1879 as the company exhibited a huon pine bedroom suite at the Sydney International Exhibition 1879-80. However, the extent of manufacturing may have been limited until around 1889 when regular advertisements began to appear for David Jones-manufactured furniture. In the same year David Jones is listed for the first time as a furniture manufacturer in the Sands' Sydney directory, with a factory located in Kent Street.

Following the occupation of additional premises along George Street in 1894, David Jones advertised a strategic change of direction: ?we have decided to discontinue keeping stocks of heavy dining and bedroom furniture, bedsteads and bedding. We shall, however, expand in the direction of high art furnishings?? This catalogue produced c1895 may be an attempt to illustrate the new merchandising philosophy. The idea of 'art furnishings' had its root in the belief of English cultural critics that the interiors of a home could be more than just a mixed collection of furnishings but should be furnished to demonstrate artistic good taste.

English pattern books or guides for furniture design were used by Australian furniture makers throughout the 19th century. The David Jones catalogue, called a 'Design Book' in the preface, was a conscious attempt to produce an Australian furniture design reference. It covers a wide variety of revivalist styles including Elizabethan, Louise Seize, Chippendale and Queen Anne that would appeal to most middle-class householders. However, the designs were not all produced by Australian hands - plates are known to have been copied from the Cabinet makers' pattern book (Wyman & Sons, London, c1875) and C & R Light's Cabinet furniture (London, 1880), while E W Poley's illustrations of dining rooms originate from the English journal The cabinet maker & art furnisher (July 1890).

Although furniture design sources appear mostly to be English, some of the illustrations of window drapery in the catalogue have a German origin. These were drawn by Australian artist Fred Leist (1873-1945) from designs by A. & L. Streitenfeld, published in Berlin around 1888-89. A set of Leist's original watercolour designs have been digitized for this project.

For around two decades after the publication of this catalogue, David Jones actively promoted its quality 'artistic' furniture and furnishings. However, 1917 was the last year the company was listed as a furniture manufacturer in the Sydney Sands post office directory. In that same year, rival furniture manufacturer and merchant, Beard Watson, advertised that it had purchased David Jones' entire stock in the following departments: furniture, bedsteads and bedding, carpets and linoleum, and furnishing drapery. David Jones remained out of the furniture trade until 1960 when the fifth floor of its Market Street store became the new home furnishings department. Furniture manufacturing, however, has never been reintroduced. (Michael Lech, September 2011] The David Jones name has long been associated with Sydney: as a retailer of fine merchandise and as the city's longest surviving department store. The company began in 1838 when Welsh-born immigrant, David Jones (1793-1873), established a drapery business on the corner of George and Barrack Streets. For almost the whole period to 1980, a member of the Jones family remained at the head of the company.

Many department stores around the world, including David Jones, started in the drapery trade before expanding into other merchandising lines. In order to control supply lines and profit margins, a number of these same department stores became manufacturers of a range of goods. David Jones was manufacturing furniture from as early as 1879 as the company exhibited a huon pine bedroom suite at the Sydney International Exhibition 1879-80. However, the extent of manufacturing may have been limited until around 1889 when regular advertisements began to appear for David Jones-manufactured furniture. In the same year David Jones is listed for the first time as a furniture manufacturer in the Sands' Sydney directory, with a factory located in Kent Street.

Following the occupation of additional premises along George Street in 1894, David Jones advertised a strategic change of direction: ?we have decided to discontinue keeping stocks of heavy dining and bedroom furniture, bedsteads and bedding. We shall, however, expand in the direction of high art furnishings?? This catalogue produced c1895 may be an attempt to illustrate the new merchandising philosophy. The idea of 'art furnishings' had its root in the belief of English cultural critics that the interiors of a home could be more than just a mixed collection of furnishings but should be furnished to demonstrate artistic good taste.

English pattern books or guides for furniture design were used by Australian furniture makers throughout the 19th century. The David Jones catalogue, called a 'Design Book' in the preface, was a conscious attempt to produce an Australian furniture design reference. It covers a wide variety of revivalist styles including Elizabethan, Louise Seize, Chippendale and Queen Anne that would appeal to most middle-class householders. However, the designs were not all produced by Australian hands - plates are known to have been copied from the Cabinet makers' pattern book (Wyman & Sons, London, c1875) and C & R Light's Cabinet furniture (London, 1880), while E W Poley's illustrations of dining rooms originate from the English journal The cabinet maker & art furnisher (July 1890).

Although furniture design sources appear mostly to be English, some of the illustrations of window drapery in the catalogue have a German origin. These were drawn by Australian artist Fred Leist (1873-1945) from designs by A. & L. Streitenfeld, published in Berlin around 1888-89. A set of Leist's original watercolour designs have been digitized for this project.

For around two decades after the publication of this catalogue, David Jones actively promoted its quality 'artistic' furniture and furnishings. However, 1917 was the last year the company was listed as a furniture manufacturer in the Sydney Sands post office directory. In that same year, rival furniture manufacturer and merchant, Beard Watson, advertised that it had purchased David Jones' entire stock in the following departments: furniture, bedsteads and bedding, carpets and linoleum, and furnishing drapery. David Jones remained out of the furniture trade until 1960 when the fifth floor of its Market Street store became the new home furnishings department. Furniture manufacturing, however, has never been reintroduced. (Michael Lech, September 2011]
Set of watercolour designs for window drapery, portieres and furniture / by Frederick Leist
Frederick Leist (1873-1945) was an Australian artist and illustrator. Early in his career he trained as a furniture designer under the guidance of Fra more...
Frederick Leist (1873-1945) was an Australian artist and illustrator. Early in his career he trained as a furniture designer under the guidance of Francis Dickin and was employed by department store and furniture manufacturer, David Jones & Co. A collection of Leist's designs for drapery and furniture were found inserted into a David Jones & Co catalogue, c1895. Only three of the designs were reproduced in the David Jones catalogue though others may have appeared in alternate forms of advertising.

Leist was one of a small army of commercial artists working between the late 19th and mid 20th century who earned a living illustrating mail order catalogues, advertising and other display ephemera for department stores and large retailers in Australia. Of the 17 designs in this portfolio, 12 are signed 'F Leist', three are worked in black ink while the remainder are in watercolour and pencil. Although two of the designs depict furniture, the others show window, door or bed drapery.

The drapery in the Leist designs - elaborately looped and pleated or loosely hanging in festoons and folds - was a stylish choice for middle class homes of the 1880s and 90s. The English journal, Furniture & Decoration, which regularly illustrated similar designs, stated in May 1892 that ?recent fashionable tendencies have encouraged the employment of much more drapery in our houses than was deemed desirable, or even permissible, a few years ago.? Drapery was everywhere, particularly in contrast to the immediate previous period when it was more restrained, and now it often came adorned with features of the Aesthetic movement like fans and palm fronds. Lambrequins had also been more fashionable a decade earlier but were mostly removed from window treatments in favour of curtain poles which could be more easily employed to raise or throw drapery, while the use of asymmetrical or 'irregular' styles, as they were called by Frank Moreland in his influential Practical decorative upholstery (1890), also became more popular. The tendency was for the window treatment and portiere to comprise 'dress curtains' that were not designed to be pulled across a window. Lace curtains, used as a second or under-layer of drapery, often served this purpose, adding a degree of privacy. The drapery chosen often depended on which room was to be decorated - most elaborate drapery was often reserved for parlours or drawing rooms, while for bedrooms, according to N W Jacobs in his Practical handbook on cutting draperies (1890), ?the decoration and drapery should be light and airy.?

The newly fashionable styles of the 1880s and 90s were often described as French, but seven of the Leist designs for drapery are known to have been copied from a German source: A. & L. Streitenfeld's Die praxis des tapezieres und decorateurs, published in Berlin around 1888. The Leist designs came from the first two folios of a three volume set, each of 24 loose chromolithographic plates. English language versions of some of Streitenfelds' designs were also available - one example published in New York by the same German publisher, Hessling & Spielmeyer was The practical decorator (c1892) which was issued with 20 plates. The Streitenfeld source books may have been owned by Leist himself but it seems more likely that the volumes were part of the professional or trade library of either David Jones or a senior member of staff such as the head of the art furnishings department. [Michael Lech, September 2011]

Hardware
Hardware
[Illustrated catalogue] / Benham and Sons, manufacturing and furnishing ironmongers, 19, 20 & 21 Wigmore Street, Cavendish Square, London
John Lee Benham [1785-1864] first set up in business as a furnishing ironmonger in 1817 at 1 Edward St, Portman Square, London - initially dealing in more...
John Lee Benham [1785-1864] first set up in business as a furnishing ironmonger in 1817 at 1 Edward St, Portman Square, London - initially dealing in the production of baths and later in gas light fittings. In 1824 he bought property at 19 Wigmore Rd, Cavendish Square, where the business remained until 1872, sons William Edward, James and Frederick having been brought into the firm. Benham & Sons participated in the International Exhibitions of London 1851 and 1871, Paris 1867 and Vienna 1873 exhibiting a range of cooking apparatus for residential and commercial applications. In 1872 the firm expanded their premises in Wigmore Rd and established a second factory at St Anne's Square, Manchester. Commissions involved the furnishing and fitting of globe lighting and stoves for large institutions such as workhouses and infirmaries, as well as the cellars, kitchen and scullery of the Middlesborough New Station [railway] Refreshment Rooms. In 1892 the business was converted to a private limited liability company, becoming Benham & Sons Ltd. When it joined the Glover and Main Group in 1960 it and had been managed by five successive generations of the Benham family. In 1965 it became part of Thorn EMI.

Ironmongery originally referred both to the manufacture and place of sale of iron goods, produced for domestic purposes rather than industrial use. This catalogue demonstrates the number and variety of objects offered by furnishing ironmongers and manufacturers in the late 19th century and illustrates the practicality and attention to design detail, undertaken to meet the demands of an expanding market. This catalogue, produced c1868-1872, includes stoves, fenders, fire-irons and chimney-pieces; kitchen ranges and cooking apparatus, hot plates, hot closets, smoke jacks, dinner lifts, &c; water-closets, pumps, hot-water apparatus, greenhouses, conservatories, laundry apparatus &c; locks and lock furniture, bellhanging; gas fitting, gas works, gas cooking apparatus; iron gates and railing, staircase balusters; mediaeval metal work of every description, in silver, brass, iron, or bronze. The Caroline Simpson Library & Research Collection at the HHT also holds a copy of Benham's 1864 abridged illustrated catalogue including metal bedsteads; table cutlery and wares; tea services, urns and kettles; communion services; baths; kitchen apparatus; fireplace fittings; fire engines and garden furniture etc.

A wide range of Benham's products were on offer to the Australian colonial market from the early 1840s. Sydney merchants such as T & M Woolley of 76 George Street retailed Benham's patent shower baths with curtains and force pumps, patent hand shower baths for children and hip, slipper and foot baths for domestic use. The firm's equipment was also used in commercial premises and institutions, including the newly opened Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney in 1882. Hot water heaters were installed to provide piped hot and cold water to the wards and rooms and the kitchen was fitted with Benham's large double-oven kitchener, smaller ovens, roasters, steamers & boilers. [Marina Grilanc, September 2011]

James Cartland & Son general brass foundry, patentees & manufacturers 1886
When James Cartland & Son issued its mammoth 682 page catalogue in 1886, it was one of the largest brass founders in the world. Cartland was in t more...
When James Cartland & Son issued its mammoth 682 page catalogue in 1886, it was one of the largest brass founders in the world. Cartland was in the brass business as early in 1823, trading in partnership as Dyer and Cartland. In 1833 the partnership was dissolved and James Cartland then operated under his own name; his son John and other descendents joined the firm later and continued the business until it closed around 1955. For most of the time the company's base was on Constitution Hill in Birmingham, England. By the 1880s, John Cartland & Son had upwards of 500 employees and was advertising as 'Cabinet, builders' and naval brass founders', one of the many branches of the brass manufacturing industry. The versatility of brass (an alloy of copper and zinc) together with its decreasing cost during the 19th century, led to its use for a huge number of applications from musical instruments to lighting and precision scientific instruments. In 1865, Birmingham, the brass capital of the world, was home to 216 brass manufacturers from all branches of the trade. James Cartland & Son used brass to create all manner of effects - according to an 1888 article, "the brass is stamped, perforated and engraved in appropriate combinations of bronzing, gilding and oxidizing". In addition, this catalogue includes a range of goods in other materials including timber, glass and ceramic (china), the later material used from the 1840s in combination with brass for door, window and other fashionable cabinet hardware. The firm was also well-known for production of a number of registered and patented goods, some of which are listed on the title page of the catalogue, such as: Andrews, Peacock's & Pugh's patent lock furniture, Beanland's patent quadrants, Thorpe's ventilating sash fasteners, etc. By the later part of the 19th century, James Cartland & Son were regularly entering and winning awards at international exhibitions. Gold medals were won at Australian exhibitions including in Melbourne (1880/81 and 1888/89) and Adelaide (1887). Although cabinet brass was the central exhibit, the company did prepare candlesticks and inkstands in 'Jubilee and Kangaroo' patterns, specially designed for the Adelaide exhibition. In addition to exhibitions, Cartland's presence in Australia was increasing in this period: Sydney ironmongery retailer, WS Friend, illustrated in its 1886 catalogue of English hardware, 'Cartland's registered rack pulleys' and 'Cartland's registered venetian blind holder and tassel hooks'; and 'Cartland's patent double action door springs' were also of sufficient worth to be listed in The Australian builders' (and contractors') price book for 1891. A brass eagle lectern, manufactured by James Cartland & Son, was presented to St John's Church in the Sydney suburb of Ashfield in memory of Mr J M Sandy. Because of the quality and reputation of Cartland's work, it is perhaps no surprise that this 1886 catalogue was one of a number that formed part of the trade library of Sydney art metal workers, James Castle & Sons (a collection now held by the Caroline Simpson Library & Research Collection at the Historic Houses Trust). Based in King Street Newtown, Castle & Sons were established in 1889 and worked in brass, copper, bronze and iron. At the Sydney Arts and Crafts Exhibition of 1892, the company displayed items for ecclesiastical purposes such as lecterns and crosses but also according to the Australasian Builder & Contractors' News: "gas standards, brackets and pendants, hanging lamps and candelabra, all of wrought brass in original and good designs, clocks, door handles and finger-plates, lettering and other articles in the same material." In later years, memorial tablets provided lucrative business. Castle & Sons regularly worked with the best Sydney architects of the day - in the late 19th and early 20th centuries this included John Burcham Clamp, Sulman & Power and Robertson & Marks. The company was finally wound up in 1966. [Michael Lech, September 2011]
James Cartland & Son general brass foundry, patentees & manufacturers 1886
When James Cartland & Son issued its mammoth 682 page catalogue in 1886, it was one of the largest brass founders in the world. Cartland was in t more...
When James Cartland & Son issued its mammoth 682 page catalogue in 1886, it was one of the largest brass founders in the world. Cartland was in the brass business as early in 1823, trading in partnership as Dyer and Cartland. In 1833 the partnership was dissolved and James Cartland then operated under his own name; his son John and other descendents joined the firm later and continued the business until it closed around 1955. For most of the time the company's base was on Constitution Hill in Birmingham, England. By the 1880s, John Cartland & Son had upwards of 500 employees and was advertising as 'Cabinet, builders' and naval brass founders', one of the many branches of the brass manufacturing industry. The versatility of brass (an alloy of copper and zinc) together with its decreasing cost during the 19th century, led to its use for a huge number of applications from musical instruments to lighting and precision scientific instruments. In 1865, Birmingham, the brass capital of the world, was home to 216 brass manufacturers from all branches of the trade. James Cartland & Son used brass to create all manner of effects - according to an 1888 article, "the brass is stamped, perforated and engraved in appropriate combinations of bronzing, gilding and oxidizing". In addition, this catalogue includes a range of goods in other materials including timber, glass and ceramic (china), the later material used from the 1840s in combination with brass for door, window and other fashionable cabinet hardware. The firm was also well-known for production of a number of registered and patented goods, some of which are listed on the title page of the catalogue, such as: Andrews, Peacock's & Pugh's patent lock furniture, Beanland's patent quadrants, Thorpe's ventilating sash fasteners, etc. By the later part of the 19th century, James Cartland & Son were regularly entering and winning awards at international exhibitions. Gold medals were won at Australian exhibitions including in Melbourne (1880/81 and 1888/89) and Adelaide (1887). Although cabinet brass was the central exhibit, the company did prepare candlesticks and inkstands in 'Jubilee and Kangaroo' patterns, specially designed for the Adelaide exhibition. In addition to exhibitions, Cartland's presence in Australia was increasing in this period: Sydney ironmongery retailer, WS Friend, illustrated in its 1886 catalogue of English hardware, 'Cartland's registered rack pulleys' and 'Cartland's registered venetian blind holder and tassel hooks'; and 'Cartland's patent double action door springs' were also of sufficient worth to be listed in The Australian builders' (and contractors') price book for 1891. A brass eagle lectern, manufactured by James Cartland & Son, was presented to St John's Church in the Sydney suburb of Ashfield in memory of Mr J M Sandy. Because of the quality and reputation of Cartland's work, it is perhaps no surprise that this 1886 catalogue was one of a number that formed part of the trade library of Sydney art metal workers, James Castle & Sons (a collection now held by the Caroline Simpson Library & Research Collection at the Historic Houses Trust). Based in King Street Newtown, Castle & Sons were established in 1889 and worked in brass, copper, bronze and iron. At the Sydney Arts and Crafts Exhibition of 1892, the company displayed items for ecclesiastical purposes such as lecterns and crosses but also according to the Australasian Builder & Contractors' News: "gas standards, brackets and pendants, hanging lamps and candelabra, all of wrought brass in original and good designs, clocks, door handles and finger-plates, lettering and other articles in the same material." In later years, memorial tablets provided lucrative business. Castle & Sons regularly worked with the best Sydney architects of the day - in the late 19th and early 20th centuries this included John Burcham Clamp, Sulman & Power and Robertson & Marks. The company was finally wound up in 1966. [Michael Lech, September 2011]
Household Goods
Household Goods
[Illustrated catalogue] / Benham and Sons, manufacturing and furnishing ironmongers, 19, 20 & 21 Wigmore Street, Cavendish Square, London
John Lee Benham [1785-1864] first set up in business as a furnishing ironmonger in 1817 at 1 Edward St, Portman Square, London - initially dealing in more...
John Lee Benham [1785-1864] first set up in business as a furnishing ironmonger in 1817 at 1 Edward St, Portman Square, London - initially dealing in the production of baths and later in gas light fittings. In 1824 he bought property at 19 Wigmore Rd, Cavendish Square, where the business remained until 1872, sons William Edward, James and Frederick having been brought into the firm. Benham & Sons participated in the International Exhibitions of London 1851 and 1871, Paris 1867 and Vienna 1873 exhibiting a range of cooking apparatus for residential and commercial applications. In 1872 the firm expanded their premises in Wigmore Rd and established a second factory at St Anne's Square, Manchester. Commissions involved the furnishing and fitting of globe lighting and stoves for large institutions such as workhouses and infirmaries, as well as the cellars, kitchen and scullery of the Middlesborough New Station [railway] Refreshment Rooms. In 1892 the business was converted to a private limited liability company, becoming Benham & Sons Ltd. When it joined the Glover and Main Group in 1960 it and had been managed by five successive generations of the Benham family. In 1965 it became part of Thorn EMI.

Ironmongery originally referred both to the manufacture and place of sale of iron goods, produced for domestic purposes rather than industrial use. This catalogue demonstrates the number and variety of objects offered by furnishing ironmongers and manufacturers in the late 19th century and illustrates the practicality and attention to design detail, undertaken to meet the demands of an expanding market. This catalogue, produced c1868-1872, includes stoves, fenders, fire-irons and chimney-pieces; kitchen ranges and cooking apparatus, hot plates, hot closets, smoke jacks, dinner lifts, &c; water-closets, pumps, hot-water apparatus, greenhouses, conservatories, laundry apparatus &c; locks and lock furniture, bellhanging; gas fitting, gas works, gas cooking apparatus; iron gates and railing, staircase balusters; mediaeval metal work of every description, in silver, brass, iron, or bronze. The Caroline Simpson Library & Research Collection at the HHT also holds a copy of Benham's 1864 abridged illustrated catalogue including metal bedsteads; table cutlery and wares; tea services, urns and kettles; communion services; baths; kitchen apparatus; fireplace fittings; fire engines and garden furniture etc.

A wide range of Benham's products were on offer to the Australian colonial market from the early 1840s. Sydney merchants such as T & M Woolley of 76 George Street retailed Benham's patent shower baths with curtains and force pumps, patent hand shower baths for children and hip, slipper and foot baths for domestic use. The firm's equipment was also used in commercial premises and institutions, including the newly opened Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney in 1882. Hot water heaters were installed to provide piped hot and cold water to the wards and rooms and the kitchen was fitted with Benham's large double-oven kitchener, smaller ovens, roasters, steamers & boilers. [Marina Grilanc, September 2011]

Drawings of ranges, stoves, pipes, ornamental and general castings, &c / made by the General Iron Foundry Company Limited
The General Iron Foundry Co Ltd was a London manufacturer of wrought and cast iron goods from the mid 19th century. The firm was also engaged in the m more...
The General Iron Foundry Co Ltd was a London manufacturer of wrought and cast iron goods from the mid 19th century. The firm was also engaged in the manufacture and installation of cooking, heating and ventilating equipment and accessories. They had offices, warehouses and showrooms at 43 Upper Thames Street, London, in addition to the Lyons & Brooks' Wharves, 5 Broken Wharf and a factory at 9 Old Fish Street Hill from c1858. The firm participated in the International Exhibitions of London 1862 and Paris 1867, receiving a prize medal for excellence in workmanship in large cooking apparatus at London. During the 1870s the company expanded their interests to include the importation and manufacture of a range of marble chimney pieces and sales of Molines Patent wrought iron windows. By the early 1880s Samuel Rogers [1836-1919] had become manager, the firm expanding into safe manufacturing and cast-iron tube making. Among Britain's most prominent boilermakers and manufacturers and fitters of heating apparatus, the firm's operations remained at the same locations until c1963, by which time the General Construction & Engineering Company Ltd had emerged as an off-shoot from the original firm.

The technology of heating and ventilating developed from horticultural requirements to warm glass-houses in the early 19th century. The need for more efficient combustion of coal, for use in fireplace and chimney constructions, had led to the development of freestanding solid-fuel cast-iron stoves, steam and eventually hot water boilers and drought regulators. Introduced as early as the 1840s and 50s, General manufactured and fitted their cabin, shop, bath and harness room stoves, with their larger hot air stoves more commonly installed in church buildings and their larger kitchen ranges and hot water boilers installed in public and private institutions.

Mid 19th century improvements in casting techniques led to the development of more decorative ironwork and the increased use of architectural iron goods generally. The variety of sizes, styles and designs available in ornamental chimney pieces, staircases, balusters, railings, fences and window guards, illustrates manufacturing responses to changing fashions, increased affordability and widening demand across the British Empire. By the1850s cottage versions of ranges were available throughout Australian colonies, with modern closed ranges becoming increasingly common by the 1880s. New housing developments installed local and imported stoves, chimney pieces and architectural ironwork and inter-colonial and international exhibitions were particularly important in terms of household ironmongery, with cooking apparatus shown and advertised by suppliers and importers during the late Victorian period. [Marina Grilanc, September 2011]

Joinery
Joinery
[New illustrated catalogue] / Goodlet & Smith Ltd.
Scottish born John Hay Goodlet [1835-1914] arrived in Australia in 1852, finding work with fellow Scots, brothers Charles and John Smith of C & J Smi more...
Scottish born John Hay Goodlet [1835-1914] arrived in Australia in 1852, finding work with fellow Scots, brothers Charles and John Smith of C & J Smith Timber Merchants, Melbourne. Goodlet became a partner in the company in 1853 and by 1854 had opened a Sydney branch, identified as Goodlet & Co of Pyrmont. That partnership was dissolved in 1859, a new venture with James Smith resulting in the firm of Goodlet & Smith. The firm operated the extensive Victoria Saw and Joinery Mills site at Murray Street, Pyrmont, with a company wharf, and also had a site at the foot of Harris Street from 1872 to 1927. Supplying a large proportion of Sydney's late 19th century building requirements, the firm also maintained regional mills at Ulladulla and Cape Hawke, from which a fleet of company ships transported timber to Pyrmont. Imported timbers arrived aboard the company ship, Nineveh.
Glass was imported from Britain, Belgium and Germany until the firm commenced its own production of stained glass in 1888, establishing a glass warehouse and office at 493 George St Sydney. Windows were produced for private, public and ecclesiastical commissions, including those for St Andrews Presbyterian Church, Sydney Town Hall, Queen Victoria Building, Sydney Hospital, Central Railway Station and the Presbyterian Ladies College. The company participated in a number of Exhibitions, including the Inter-colonial Exhibitions of Melbourne 1866 and Sydney 1870 and the Centennial International Exhibition of Melbourne 1888-89, where they exhibited stained glass works.
The firm expanded its interests in 1867, with bricks, pottery and earthenware manufactured at the Pottery and Brick Works, Riley St, Surrey Hills until its closure in 1915. The Caroline Simpson Library & Research Collection at the HHT also holds examples of the firm's salt-glazed ceramic garden edging tiles [identified as 'spear-head' design in the 1902 and 1910 catalogues]. In the early1870s the Waterloo Brickworks and the Junction Brick and Pottery Works, Granville were incorporated, the former operating until the mid 1890s and the latter until 1919. In 1882 Smith retired and Goodlet turned the business into a limited liability company, diversifying to produce the colony's first Marseilles roof tiles and commercially viable Portland cement by 1893. The firm was largely bought out by the West Australian Cement Co in 1919, then by Newbold Refractories in 1955. [Marina Grilanc, September 2011] Scottish born John Hay Goodlet [1835-1914] arrived in Australia in 1852, finding work with fellow Scots, brothers Charles and John Smith of C & J Smith Timber Merchants, Melbourne. Goodlet became a partner in the company in 1853 and by 1854 had opened a Sydney branch, identified as Goodlet & Co of Pyrmont. That partnership was dissolved in 1859, a new venture with James Smith resulting in the firm of Goodlet & Smith. The firm operated the extensive Victoria Saw and Joinery Mills site at Murray Street, Pyrmont, with a company wharf, and also had a site at the foot of Harris Street from 1872 to 1927. Supplying a large proportion of Sydney's late 19th century building requirements, the firm also maintained regional mills at Ulladulla and Cape Hawke, from which a fleet of company ships transported timber to Pyrmont. Imported timbers arrived aboard the company ship, Nineveh.
Glass was imported from Britain, Belgium and Germany until the firm commenced its own production of stained glass in 1888, establishing a glass warehouse and office at 493 George St Sydney. Windows were produced for private, public and ecclesiastical commissions, including those for St Andrews Presbyterian Church, Sydney Town Hall, Queen Victoria Building, Sydney Hospital, Central Railway Station and the Presbyterian Ladies College. The company participated in a number of Exhibitions, including the Inter-colonial Exhibitions of Melbourne 1866 and Sydney 1870 and the Centennial International Exhibition of Melbourne 1888-89, where they exhibited stained glass works.
The firm expanded its interests in 1867, with bricks, pottery and earthenware manufactured at the Pottery and Brick Works, Riley St, Surrey Hills until its closure in 1915. The Caroline Simpson Library & Research Collection at the HHT also holds examples of the firm's salt-glazed ceramic garden edging tiles [identified as 'spear-head' design in the 1902 and 1910 catalogues]. In the early1870s the Waterloo Brickworks and the Junction Brick and Pottery Works, Granville were incorporated, the former operating until the mid 1890s and the latter until 1919. In 1882 Smith retired and Goodlet turned the business into a limited liability company, diversifying to produce the colony's first Marseilles roof tiles and commercially viable Portland cement by 1893. The firm was largely bought out by the West Australian Cement Co in 1919, then by Newbold Refractories in 1955. [Marina Grilanc, September 2011]
Catalogue from H. McKenzie, Limited, with compliments
Scottish born Hepburn McKenzie [1864-1925] arrived in Australia in 1888 at the age of 24 and in 1891 started business as a cedar trader in Sussex Str more...
Scottish born Hepburn McKenzie [1864-1925] arrived in Australia in 1888 at the age of 24 and in 1891 started business as a cedar trader in Sussex Street, Sydney. By 1894 McKenzie had established a small steam saw mill at 50 Pyrmont Street, expanding the timber and joinery business to incorporate branch yards and a wharf at Blackwattle Bay by 1899. In 1900 he relocated to a site in Abattoirs Road and installed the first American Log Band-Saw in Australasia. McKenzie received timber from Queensland and NSW and imported from New Zealand, New Hebrides, New Guinea, Java, Thailand (Siam), India, Scandinavia and the USA. In addition, the firm also imported galvanised iron and builders' ironmongery. The company distributed materials to domestic building markets throughout NSW, Victoria, Adelaide, Perth, Tasmania and New Zealand and secured public works contracts, such as the construction of the second Glebe Island Bridge in 1903. The Log Band Saw Mill and Plant was destroyed by fire in 1906, resulting in relocation to a larger, waterfront site on Glebe Island, Balmain. McKenzie financed the re-build by forming the public company of H. McKenzie Limited, raising the necessary investment and re-opening in 1907. As a self-generating electrical plant, the firm offered the first electric sawmilling in Sydney. As this 1908 trade catalogue shows, McKenzies' produced weatherboards, flooring and linings, turned and moulded building materials and pre-fabricated houses & churches, gates, doors, window frames, mantelpieces, shop fronts and counters and church furniture. The yards at Abattoirs Road were used for a box manufacturing plant, making cases for butter, soap, condiments, wines, onions and fruit etc. In 1918 McKenzie bought the rights for ten years to 10,000 acres (approx 4,000 ha) on Fraser Island, Queensland and constructed timber mills, tramlines, a deep water jetty, thirty shacks to house employees and a school for their children. In 1925 the Fraser Island operations were auctioned off and purchased by the Forestry Department. Work at the Pyrmont site continued until 1926, after which the company continued to manufacture from Glebe Island, with a head office at Rhodes and branches at Newcastle, Belmore and Turramurra, then from Belmore and Eastwood in the 1950s. The H. McKenzie Home Improvement Centre, of Rhodes continues as a timber importing and milling company and a showroom for the non-timber products for which the company is an agent.
[Marina Grilanc November 2011]
Saxton & Binns Ltd.
The firm of Saxton & Binns Limited, timber and joinery merchants, was formed in the late 1880s through the partnership of Alexander Charles Saxton (18 more...
The firm of Saxton & Binns Limited, timber and joinery merchants, was formed in the late 1880s through the partnership of Alexander Charles Saxton (1865-1926) and Jazeb Henry Binns [1857-1909]. Their manufacturing plant was called the Enterprise Mills and was located in the industrialised Pyrmont peninsula of Sydney, fronting Blackwattle Bay at the intersection of Pyrmont Bridge Road and Abattoirs Road. The plant had been originally established as the "Enterprise Steam Sawmills, Joinery and Art Cabinet Works" in 1883 by Saxton's father Charles Thomas Saxton. Saxton senior was London-born but had arrived in Sydney in 1877 from New Zealand, where he had worked as a contractor and where his son had been born.
The Blackwattle Bay location offered wharf capacity for deliveries of local and imported timbers. Sydney City Council Land Reclamation projects along the Pyrmont waterfront facilitated expansion of the firm's operations, which by the 1890s incorporated the newly formed Gipps St land extension. The total area housed offices, a mill, kilns, joinery works, glazing shops, a mantle makers department, turning department and sash makers department. The firm also manufactured pre-fabricated weatherboard and frame houses. In 1898 the partners took out a patent for 'improvements in flooring and the like', applicable to their manufacture of flooring, mouldings and linings. The firm supplied both public and domestic building sectors and secured contracts from Government departments, such as the Pastures Protection Board in 1906, in which dwellings, laboratories and barracks were required on Broughton Island for a rabbit eradication project, by means of an experimental virus. The Pyrmont site was damaged by numerous fires between 1899 and 1916, the most extensive in 1909, possibly as a result of arson, while others were due to embers from local rubbish-tip fires. J H Binns retired in 1908 and by 1918 Saxton & Binns Limited had gone into voluntary liquidation, Saxton forming AC Saxton & Sons Ltd. Saxton himself drowned in a yachting accident off Newport in October 1926 but the business remained at the Pyrmont site until closure in 1963.
[Marina Grilanc, November 2011]
Lighting
Lighting
[Catalogue] / Clarke's "Pyramid" and "Fairy" Light Company, Limited
The Clarke's Pyramid and Fairy Light Lamp Company was situated at the Pyramid Works, Cricklewood, with showrooms in various locations throughout Lond more...
The Clarke's Pyramid and Fairy Light Lamp Company was situated at the Pyramid Works, Cricklewood, with showrooms in various locations throughout London. The Clarke family was involved in English candle manufacturing from the 1840s and, as candle burning night lights, Fairy Lamps were considered suitable for use in nurseries, hallways and 'sick-rooms' as they did not require the constant monitoring necessary with oil lamps. Samuel Clarke's 1885 patent for a dome covered glass cup, housing a candle, became the basis of all future Fairy Lamps. The firm participated in the International Exhibitions of Paris 1867, Moscow 1872, London 1873, New Orleans & Melbourne 1884 and Chicago 1893, winning a number of awards including First Prize for the Patent Pyramid Night Light at Moscow. The company was also awarded a gold medal at the 1886 Botanical Fete at Regent's Park for its illumination of botanical displays with Fairy Lamps. The business was bought in 1910 by Price's Patent Candle Company, who continued to manufacture a number of Clarke's products and use the company name.

Clarke lamps ranged from the inexpensive to examples with elaborate stands, pottery bases, wall plaques, chandeliers and epergnes. These were made by firms such as Royal Worcester and Doulton, granted licences to produce cups and art glass shades for the company and its distributors. Cups were available in glass or porcelain and were often embossed with the company's 'fairy' trademark and logo. Shades came in a wide choice of designs and colours made from a range of materials including Burmese, satin glass, Peachblow, Verre moire and crystal, Lithophane and cameo designs in swirled, diamond quilt, mother of pearl and ribbed styles. Designs included pineapple, shell, crown, berry, diamond quilt and diamond point patterns and were generally used in dining rooms or as ornamental lamps for drawing room tables. Brass, nickel and silver-plated standards and ceiling pendants to hold lamps were also marketed, sometimes with mirrored bases holding leaves and branches in ormolu. Bases and shades could be interchanged to match décor and by 1890 Clarke patented the more expensive "Cricklite" style of candle lamp, the clear glass domes designed to provide greater lighting and compliment modern gas and electric light fittings.

Clarke exported their products to the United States, Europe and Australia, and like other British manufacturers at the time, had representation abroad. The firm's Australian agent was Francis Forrest & Co., 454 Collins Street West, Melbourne, Victoria. Marketing a range of Clarke lamps from the 1880s to the 1890s, Forest & Co advertisements also indicated the availability of Pyramid Night Lamps with serviceable domestic accessories such as pannikins. These were used for warming foods and liquids for invalids and children and stressed the superior qualities and safety of Clarke's Patent Fireproof Plaster Cases and Prepared Wicks. [Marina Grilanc, September 2011] The Clarke's Pyramid and Fairy Light Lamp Company was situated at the Pyramid Works, Cricklewood, with showrooms in various locations throughout London. The Clarke family was involved in English candle manufacturing from the 1840s and, as candle burning night lights, Fairy Lamps were considered suitable for use in nurseries, hallways and 'sick-rooms' as they did not require the constant monitoring necessary with oil lamps. Samuel Clarke's 1885 patent for a dome covered glass cup, housing a candle, became the basis of all future Fairy Lamps. The firm participated in the International Exhibitions of Paris 1867, Moscow 1872, London 1873, New Orleans & Melbourne 1884 and Chicago 1893, winning a number of awards including First Prize for the Patent Pyramid Night Light at Moscow. The company was also awarded a gold medal at the 1886 Botanical Fete at Regent's Park for its illumination of botanical displays with Fairy Lamps. The business was bought in 1910 by Price's Patent Candle Company, who continued to manufacture a number of Clarke's products and use the company name.

Clarke lamps ranged from the inexpensive to examples with elaborate stands, pottery bases, wall plaques, chandeliers and epergnes. These were made by firms such as Royal Worcester and Doulton, granted licences to produce cups and art glass shades for the company and its distributors. Cups were available in glass or porcelain and were often embossed with the company's 'fairy' trademark and logo. Shades came in a wide choice of designs and colours made from a range of materials including Burmese, satin glass, Peachblow, Verre moire and crystal, Lithophane and cameo designs in swirled, diamond quilt, mother of pearl and ribbed styles. Designs included pineapple, shell, crown, berry, diamond quilt and diamond point patterns and were generally used in dining rooms or as ornamental lamps for drawing room tables. Brass, nickel and silver-plated standards and ceiling pendants to hold lamps were also marketed, sometimes with mirrored bases holding leaves and branches in ormolu. Bases and shades could be interchanged to match décor and by 1890 Clarke patented the more expensive "Cricklite" style of candle lamp, the clear glass domes designed to provide greater lighting and compliment modern gas and electric light fittings.

Clarke exported their products to the United States, Europe and Australia, and like other British manufacturers at the time, had representation abroad. The firm's Australian agent was Francis Forrest & Co., 454 Collins Street West, Melbourne, Victoria. Marketing a range of Clarke lamps from the 1880s to the 1890s, Forest & Co advertisements also indicated the availability of Pyramid Night Lamps with serviceable domestic accessories such as pannikins. These were used for warming foods and liquids for invalids and children and stressed the superior qualities and safety of Clarke's Patent Fireproof Plaster Cases and Prepared Wicks. [Marina Grilanc, September 2011]
[Electric light fittings / William McGeoch & Co. Ltd.
The firm of William McGeoch & Co was first established as a brass foundry in Glasgow in 1832, eventually becoming, from the early 1890s, a manufactur more...
The firm of William McGeoch & Co was first established as a brass foundry in Glasgow in 1832, eventually becoming, from the early 1890s, a manufacturer of fittings and switches for domestic lighting and yachts. The company had an office at 108 Argyle St, Glasgow incorporating three floors of showrooms and a warehouse, with additional showrooms in Newcastle and London, and a manufacturing plant at the Warwick Works, 46 Coventry Rd, Birmingham. They were one of only a few companies manufacturing specifically designed electric light fittings at the turn of the century. In the 1930s McGeoch shifted the focus of their production to fittings, switches and fuse gear for commercial, marine and industrial applications. Under the name McGeoch Technology - and based in Birmingham since 1999 - the firm continues, in 2011, to design and manufacture light fittings for marine environments as well as power distribution and control and instrumentation panels for warships.

These unsigned designs - for ceiling fittings, dining room pendants, single light cord pendants, yacht pendants and brackets in polished brass or in art metalware -are in an Art Nouveau style and reflect the influence of metalware designers such as Archibald Knox and Charles Ashbee. They may be the work of an artist trained at Goldsmiths Technical College or the Re-creative Institute, New Cross, London, both schools established under the influence of the Arts and Crafts Movement, part of a movement to reform standards of design for industry. These elegant designs are closely related to art metalwork designs featured in the September 1898 issue of The Studio Magazine of Fine and Applied Arts. [Marina Grilanc, September 2011]

Illustrated catalogue / Hart, Son, Peard & Co.
The eminent firm of Hart, Son, Peard & Co was established in London around 1866, through the merger of two businesses: Hart & Son and Peard & Jackson more...
The eminent firm of Hart, Son, Peard & Co was established in London around 1866, through the merger of two businesses: Hart & Son and Peard & Jackson. Hart & Son had been founded by Joseph Hart (b.1788) around 1840, manufacturing art metal for ecclesiastic and domestic use from premises at 53-58 Wych Street, the Strand, where he was joined in 1853 by Thomas Peard. Peard began his own business in 1860 and was then joined by Frederick Jackson, forming Peard & Jackson. The merged business specialised in brass, iron and silver ecclesiastical fittings, light fittings and a wide range of interior and exterior architectural cast iron and wrought iron work. They participated in a number of International Exhibitions as well as regional exhibitions throughout the Staffordshire and Birmingham areas and sponsored prizes to various Birmingham Art and Design Schools. A number of notable designers, including J.P. Seddon, B.J. Talbert, William Burgess and William Butterfield, worked for the Hart, Son, Peard & Co. and the company also completed many commissions for the architect Alfred Waterhouse.

The company had showrooms in Brook and Regent Streets, London, a factory in Drury Lane, a foundry in Birmingham which operated as the Art Metal Works from 1886 to 1913, and an additional foundry in Ryland Street, Birmingham known as the Islington Iron Foundry. After the retirement of Hart, the Birmingham locations were supervised by son Charles Hart [b.1814], while Jackson ran the company finances and Peard ran the London businesses, with all three businesses entering marks with the London Assay Office. The firm was registered as a limited liability company in 1893, C.J. Hart, T. Peard, F. Jackson and B.A.E. Hart remaining as Directors, merging with Gittins Craftsmen Ltd (formerly the Birmingham School of Handcrafts) in 1919, before ultimately closing in the late 1950s.

This 1877 catalogue of fittings for lighting was section 4 of a 7-part catalogue published by the firm between May 1871 and April 1885 It demonstrates the wide choice of decorative options offered by the manufacturer in the second half of the 19th century and their capacity to customise individual articles to suit gas, oil or candle power. The variety of floral, foliate, scroll, heraldic and grotesque motifs incorporated into the fittings were drawn from medieval designs and were a response to fashions influenced by mid 19th century Gothic Revivalism. The firm was largely known for production of ornate metal work, achieving a high level of workmanship via traditional hand wrought practices, rather than modern industrial methods of production.

This particular copy of the catalogue formed part of the trade library of Sydney art metal workers, James Castle & Sons, established in 1889 in King Street Newtown. Castle & Sons worked in brass, copper, bronze and iron and produced works for many of the projects undertaken by leading Sydney architects John Burcham Clamp, Sulman & Power and Robertson & Marks. Castle participated in the Sydney Arts and Crafts Exhibition of 1892, displaying ecclesiastic wrought brass-ware such as gas standards, brackets and pendants, hanging lamps and candelabra, clocks, door handles, finger-plates and lettering. The Caroline Simpson Library & Research Collection holds several other catalogues provenanced to Castle & Sons. [Marina Grilanc, September 2011]

Linoleum
Linoleum
Tapis linoleum / A. Hutchinson & Cie.
Linoleum is a product of the industrial revolution. Invented by Englishman Frederick Walton (1834-1928) and first produced in 1863, it not only super more...
Linoleum is a product of the industrial revolution. Invented by Englishman Frederick Walton (1834-1928) and first produced in 1863, it not only superseded the hand-worked, hard-floor covering known as floorcloth (or oilcloth) through using a more mechanized production process but the ingredients to make linoleum were sourced from all over the world: oxidized linseed oil, ground cork (Portugal/Spain), Kauri gum (New Zealand), various pigments and burlap/canvas (India).

The name, linoleum, was coined by Walton from two Latin words: linum (flax - from which linseed oil is made) and oleum (oil). Walton's company, initially called Walton, Taylor & Company, changed its name to the Linoleum Manufacturing Company in 1864. It operated from a plant at Staines just outside of London and was the only British producer of linoleum until its patent ceased in 1877. In the USA, Walton worked with Joseph Wild between 1872-74 to establish a subsidiary company at Staten Island known as the American Linoleum Manufacturing Company, while in Europe the Linoleum Manufacturing Co took out foreign patents and eventually sold the rights to manufacture linoleum to firms in Germany and France.

In France, a branch of the Linoleum Manufacturing Company was established in 1872 and linoleum showrooms were set up by 1876 in Paris at 21 Haussmann Boulevard (the same address as on this catalogue). Manufacturing in France, however, does not appear to have commenced until the 1880s, possibly around 1882. A Hutchinson & Cie was the parent company but the firm was initially named Cie Nationale du Linoleum and from 1884 renamed Cie Française du Linoleum. The Hutchinson family connection with France began when US industrialist Hiram Hutchinson established a rubber factory at Langlee near Montargis, Loiret. His firm, Compagnie Nationale du Caoutchouc Souple, was continued and expanded by his son Alcander and soon renamed A Hutchinson & Cie. It is likely that the Hutchinsons had an association with Frederick Walton long before the manufacture of linoleum as Walton's father, James, was a Manchester manufacturer of industrial rubber products.

The manufacturing machinery, techniques and possibly all of the linoleum designs produced in France were initially imported from England. The text on the reverse of each sample, F Walton patent, verifies its origin and distinguishes it from competitors. The French company did, however, enter its products in a number of international exhibitions including the International Industrial Exhibition in Amsterdam 1883, the Centennial International Exhibition in Melbourne 1888-89 and the Exposition Universelle Internationale in Paris 1889, winning a gold medal at the latter event. Until the late 1890s, it was the only French manufacturer of linoleum.

Also included in this catalogue is a price list of the German company, Linoleum fabrik Maximiliansau, founded in 1893 and located on the Rhine River near Karlsruhe. While English linoleum designs (and those copied by the French) commonly imitated other more expensive floor coverings like ceramic tiles, carpet, parquetry, marble or stone, German designers attempted to treat linoleum as a distinct product - the resulting designs were often based on simplified geometric shapes and rarely imitative.

Frederick Walton severed ties with the Linoleum Manufacturing Company in 1882 due to conflict over production of a type of inlaid linoleum of which he did not approve, eventually establishing another firm called the Greenwich Inlaid Linoleum Company. Walton, however, remained actively involved with inventing and obtaining patents - by 1899, the Linoleum Krommenie manufacturing plant had been built in Holland to a Walton design. During this period, linoleum continued to gain in popularity in Western countries around the world assisted by its hard-wearing and easy-to-clean qualities, as well as the large range of colours and designs available. Australians were large users of linoleum but relied totally on imports until the first manufacturing plant was built in Sydney in 1924. [Michael Lech, September 2011] Linoleum is a product of the industrial revolution. Invented by Englishman Frederick Walton (1834-1928) and first produced in 1863, it not only superseded the hand-worked, hard-floor covering known as floorcloth (or oilcloth) through using a more mechanized production process but the ingredients to make linoleum were sourced from all over the world: oxidized linseed oil, ground cork (Portugal/Spain), Kauri gum (New Zealand), various pigments and burlap/canvas (India).

The name, linoleum, was coined by Walton from two Latin words: linum (flax - from which linseed oil is made) and oleum (oil). Walton's company, initially called Walton, Taylor & Company, changed its name to the Linoleum Manufacturing Company in 1864. It operated from a plant at Staines just outside of London and was the only British producer of linoleum until its patent ceased in 1877. In the USA, Walton worked with Joseph Wild between 1872-74 to establish a subsidiary company at Staten Island known as the American Linoleum Manufacturing Company, while in Europe the Linoleum Manufacturing Co took out foreign patents and eventually sold the rights to manufacture linoleum to firms in Germany and France.

In France, a branch of the Linoleum Manufacturing Company was established in 1872 and linoleum showrooms were set up by 1876 in Paris at 21 Haussmann Boulevard (the same address as on this catalogue). Manufacturing in France, however, does not appear to have commenced until the 1880s, possibly around 1882. A Hutchinson & Cie was the parent company but the firm was initially named Cie Nationale du Linoleum and from 1884 renamed Cie Française du Linoleum. The Hutchinson family connection with France began when US industrialist Hiram Hutchinson established a rubber factory at Langlee near Montargis, Loiret. His firm, Compagnie Nationale du Caoutchouc Souple, was continued and expanded by his son Alcander and soon renamed A Hutchinson & Cie. It is likely that the Hutchinsons had an association with Frederick Walton long before the manufacture of linoleum as Walton's father, James, was a Manchester manufacturer of industrial rubber products.

The manufacturing machinery, techniques and possibly all of the linoleum designs produced in France were initially imported from England. The text on the reverse of each sample, F Walton patent, verifies its origin and distinguishes it from competitors. The French company did, however, enter its products in a number of international exhibitions including the International Industrial Exhibition in Amsterdam 1883, the Centennial International Exhibition in Melbourne 1888-89 and the Exposition Universelle Internationale in Paris 1889, winning a gold medal at the latter event. Until the late 1890s, it was the only French manufacturer of linoleum.

Also included in this catalogue is a price list of the German company, Linoleum fabrik Maximiliansau, founded in 1893 and located on the Rhine River near Karlsruhe. While English linoleum designs (and those copied by the French) commonly imitated other more expensive floor coverings like ceramic tiles, carpet, parquetry, marble or stone, German designers attempted to treat linoleum as a distinct product - the resulting designs were often based on simplified geometric shapes and rarely imitative.

Frederick Walton severed ties with the Linoleum Manufacturing Company in 1882 due to conflict over production of a type of inlaid linoleum of which he did not approve, eventually establishing another firm called the Greenwich Inlaid Linoleum Company. Walton, however, remained actively involved with inventing and obtaining patents - by 1899, the Linoleum Krommenie manufacturing plant had been built in Holland to a Walton design. During this period, linoleum continued to gain in popularity in Western countries around the world assisted by its hard-wearing and easy-to-clean qualities, as well as the large range of colours and designs available. Australians were large users of linoleum but relied totally on imports until the first manufacturing plant was built in Sydney in 1924. [Michael Lech, September 2011]
Papier Mache
Papier Mache
Part of the collection of relievo decorations as executed in papier mache & carton pierre / by Geo. Jackson & Sons, 49 & 50 Rathbone Place, London
George Jackson & Sons are a London firm of architectural ornament modellers and manufacturers. The company's origins date from 1763 when Thomas Jacks more...
George Jackson & Sons are a London firm of architectural ornament modellers and manufacturers. The company's origins date from 1763 when Thomas Jackson traded as an ornamental composition manufacturer and frame maker. In the early 19th century, George Jackson (1779-1850) joined the firm and by 1834 it was known as George Jackson & Sons, trading at 49-50 Rathbone Place London.

Jackson's first known architectural work dates from 1815-22 when the company was subcontracted by Frederick Crace to embellish several rooms of the Royal Pavilion at Brighton. The work was executed in a material known as composition or compo, a plaster-like substance made from glue, linseed oil, resin and chalk that was pressed into moulds. By the time George Jackson & Sons produced its first known catalogue in 1836, both composition and papier mâché ornament was featured. In 1839, carton pierre was added to Jackson's stable of manufactures.

Papier mâché articles probably originated in east Asia and gradually found their way to Europe. Small boxes, trays and picture frames, often lacquered and/or decorated, were initially the most common items of papier mâché. However, by the late 18th century papier mâché was being used in England in ceiling ornament as a substitute for plaster, notably at Horace Walpole's 'Strawberry Hill', and by the 1830s was finding its way into a number of Australian houses. Papier mâché, made by pulping or layering paper with various additives, then pressing into moulds, waterproofing, hardening with linseed oil and drying, proved to be light, strong and malleable. Carton Pierre was made in a similar way to papier mâché, but by using different ingredients it produced a heavier and stronger material though still lighter than plaster.

At London's Great Exhibition of 1851, George Jackson & Sons won two medals and amongst a large exhibit, showed a "compartment of decoration, in carton-pierre, in high relief, for a large saloon." as well as 'caryatid, string course, entablature, pilasters, and large ceiling flowers.' The firms' reputation helped secure an Australian client: in 1856-57 Thomas Mort commissioned, George Jackson and Sons to execute mouldings for the drawing and dining rooms, library and corridor, of his Edmund Blacket-designed home, Greenoakes [now called Bishopscourt], at Darling Point in Sydney.

Papier mâché does not seem to have been much used for ceiling and wall ornament in Australia beyond the 1860s, partly because the development of cannabic or hemp-reinforced plaster made it a less competitive option. However, papier mâché ornament was being advertised in England by George Jackson & Sons as late as 1890 and carton pierre was in production until well into the 20th century. Jackson's was also alert to new technologies - the company obtained use of a patent for fibrous plaster as early as 1856 and incorporated it into its production. At the Melbourne Centennial Exhibition of 1888-89, George Jackson & Sons displayed 'carton pierre composition and patent fibrous plaster decorations'. An advertisement in 1910 described the firm as "architectural modellers, plaster workers, wood and stone carvers, lead workers, carton-pierre decoration and wood chimney pieces."

In the early 20th century when two of Jackson's competitors, Plastic Decoration & Papier Mâché Co (formerly Charles F Bielefeld) and G & A Brown Ltd, ceased trading, the moulds from these companies were acquired. George Jackson & Sons continued to operate in 2011 though the last Jackson-family connection ended in 1947. Even today, Jackson's maintain a huge range of over 11,000 boxwood moulds used for decorative composition and traditional plaster. [Michael Lech, September 2011] George Jackson & Sons are a London firm of architectural ornament modellers and manufacturers. The company's origins date from 1763 when Thomas Jackson traded as an ornamental composition manufacturer and frame maker. In the early 19th century, George Jackson (1779-1850) joined the firm and by 1834 it was known as George Jackson & Sons, trading at 49-50 Rathbone Place London.

Jackson's first known architectural work dates from 1815-22 when the company was subcontracted by Frederick Crace to embellish several rooms of the Royal Pavilion at Brighton. The work was executed in a material known as composition or compo, a plaster-like substance made from glue, linseed oil, resin and chalk that was pressed into moulds. By the time George Jackson & Sons produced its first known catalogue in 1836, both composition and papier mâché ornament was featured. In 1839, carton pierre was added to Jackson's stable of manufactures.

Papier mâché articles probably originated in east Asia and gradually found their way to Europe. Small boxes, trays and picture frames, often lacquered and/or decorated, were initially the most common items of papier mâché. However, by the late 18th century papier mâché was being used in England in ceiling ornament as a substitute for plaster, notably at Horace Walpole's 'Strawberry Hill', and by the 1830s was finding its way into a number of Australian houses. Papier mâché, made by pulping or layering paper with various additives, then pressing into moulds, waterproofing, hardening with linseed oil and drying, proved to be light, strong and malleable. Carton Pierre was made in a similar way to papier mâché, but by using different ingredients it produced a heavier and stronger material though still lighter than plaster.

At London's Great Exhibition of 1851, George Jackson & Sons won two medals and amongst a large exhibit, showed a "compartment of decoration, in carton-pierre, in high relief, for a large saloon." as well as 'caryatid, string course, entablature, pilasters, and large ceiling flowers.' The firms' reputation helped secure an Australian client: in 1856-57 Thomas Mort commissioned, George Jackson and Sons to execute mouldings for the drawing and dining rooms, library and corridor, of his Edmund Blacket-designed home, Greenoakes [now called Bishopscourt], at Darling Point in Sydney.

Papier mâché does not seem to have been much used for ceiling and wall ornament in Australia beyond the 1860s, partly because the development of cannabic or hemp-reinforced plaster made it a less competitive option. However, papier mâché ornament was being advertised in England by George Jackson & Sons as late as 1890 and carton pierre was in production until well into the 20th century. Jackson's was also alert to new technologies - the company obtained use of a patent for fibrous plaster as early as 1856 and incorporated it into its production. At the Melbourne Centennial Exhibition of 1888-89, George Jackson & Sons displayed 'carton pierre composition and patent fibrous plaster decorations'. An advertisement in 1910 described the firm as "architectural modellers, plaster workers, wood and stone carvers, lead workers, carton-pierre decoration and wood chimney pieces."

In the early 20th century when two of Jackson's competitors, Plastic Decoration & Papier Mâché Co (formerly Charles F Bielefeld) and G & A Brown Ltd, ceased trading, the moulds from these companies were acquired. George Jackson & Sons continued to operate in 2011 though the last Jackson-family connection ended in 1947. Even today, Jackson's maintain a huge range of over 11,000 boxwood moulds used for decorative composition and traditional plaster. [Michael Lech, September 2011]
Stained Glass
Stained Glass
Metal casements, stained glass, decorative ironwork / William Morris and Company (Ruskin House) Ltd.
William Morris & Company (Ruskin House) was established in 1899 by a man named William Morris. He was not the renowned textile designer, artist, writ more...
William Morris & Company (Ruskin House) was established in 1899 by a man named William Morris. He was not the renowned textile designer, artist, writer and socialist William Morris (1834-1896) associated with the pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood and the English arts and crafts movement but probably derived some commercial profile from the name. The firm specialised in stained glass and art metal work and operated from premises built in 1904 and called Ruskin House at 60 Rochester Row, Westminster, which housed three floors of departments engaged in design and manufacture. The firm was incorporated in 1906 to become William Morris & Company (Ruskin House) Limited, changing its name by 1920 to William Morris & Company (Westminster) Ltd and then Morris Westminster Guild by 1930. Stained glass commissions include the Windows for the Baptistry at the Church of St Peter, Hertfordshire, 1921 and noted Art Metal works included the bronze cases for the radiators in the Member's Entrance and Council Chambers of London County Hall, 1909, the Bassenthwaite WWI Memorial plaque, and the Oak boards for the WWI Memorial at the Inverness Royal Academy. The firm provided financial backing for the establishment of the Morris Art Bronze Foundry, Lambeth in 1921 and in 1927 acquired the Singer & Co foundry of Frome, renaming it the Morris Singer Co. In 1935 Morris Singer Co became part of the Pollard Group, undergoing several changes in ownership after 1946, with the name acquired by Art Founders Limited in 2005 and then by Zahra Modern Art Founders in 2010.

This c1909-1910 catalogue showcases the firm's broad range of stained glass, lead light and metal casement windows and includes detailed descriptions, prices and ordering information. Constituting a considerable share of the company's turnover, their patented casements were particularly popular, as they could be cleaned on both sides. Influenced by the philosophical principals of the Arts and Crafts Movement (1890-1930), the firm manufactured art metal work according to traditional practices of craftsmanship, in preference to modern industrial methods of production. Examples of architectural metal work, such as gates, fences, railings and lantern signs exhibit the high level of workmanship associated with wrought iron work, while their range of door furniture demonstrates the renewed fashion in ornate wrought ironwork for doors, inspired by 19th century Gothic Revivalism and the Arts and Crafts Movement.

The Caroline Simpson Library & Research Collection at the HHT has two copies of this catalogue, the second copy inscribed by William Morris to Herbert Smyrk [1861-1947], an English-born designer of stained glass windows and interior decoration. Smyrk established the Melbourne firm of Smyrk & Rogers in 1880, exhibiting ecclesiastic stained glass windows at the Adelaide Jubilee International Exhibition of 1887. Smyrk had a number of South Australian commissions in the 1880s and 1890s before returning to England around 1906 following the death of his wife. He became a principal artist for William Morris & Company for a few years before returning to Australia. [Marina Grilanc, September 2011] William Morris & Company (Ruskin House) was established in 1899 by a man named William Morris. He was not the renowned textile designer, artist, writer and socialist William Morris (1834-1896) associated with the pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood and the English arts and crafts movement but probably derived some commercial profile from the name. The firm specialised in stained glass and art metal work and operated from premises built in 1904 and called Ruskin House at 60 Rochester Row, Westminster, which housed three floors of departments engaged in design and manufacture. The firm was incorporated in 1906 to become William Morris & Company (Ruskin House) Limited, changing its name by 1920 to William Morris & Company (Westminster) Ltd and then Morris Westminster Guild by 1930. Stained glass commissions include the Windows for the Baptistry at the Church of St Peter, Hertfordshire, 1921 and noted Art Metal works included the bronze cases for the radiators in the Member's Entrance and Council Chambers of London County Hall, 1909, the Bassenthwaite WWI Memorial plaque, and the Oak boards for the WWI Memorial at the Inverness Royal Academy. The firm provided financial backing for the establishment of the Morris Art Bronze Foundry, Lambeth in 1921 and in 1927 acquired the Singer & Co foundry of Frome, renaming it the Morris Singer Co. In 1935 Morris Singer Co became part of the Pollard Group, undergoing several changes in ownership after 1946, with the name acquired by Art Founders Limited in 2005 and then by Zahra Modern Art Founders in 2010.

This c1909-1910 catalogue showcases the firm's broad range of stained glass, lead light and metal casement windows and includes detailed descriptions, prices and ordering information. Constituting a considerable share of the company's turnover, their patented casements were particularly popular, as they could be cleaned on both sides. Influenced by the philosophical principals of the Arts and Crafts Movement (1890-1930), the firm manufactured art metal work according to traditional practices of craftsmanship, in preference to modern industrial methods of production. Examples of architectural metal work, such as gates, fences, railings and lantern signs exhibit the high level of workmanship associated with wrought iron work, while their range of door furniture demonstrates the renewed fashion in ornate wrought ironwork for doors, inspired by 19th century Gothic Revivalism and the Arts and Crafts Movement.

The Caroline Simpson Library & Research Collection at the HHT has two copies of this catalogue, the second copy inscribed by William Morris to Herbert Smyrk [1861-1947], an English-born designer of stained glass windows and interior decoration. Smyrk established the Melbourne firm of Smyrk & Rogers in 1880, exhibiting ecclesiastic stained glass windows at the Adelaide Jubilee International Exhibition of 1887. Smyrk had a number of South Australian commissions in the 1880s and 1890s before returning to England around 1906 following the death of his wife. He became a principal artist for William Morris & Company for a few years before returning to Australia. [Marina Grilanc, September 2011]
Registered designs for ornamental modern window glass / Chance Brothers & Co., Glass Works, near Birmingham
Chance Brothers & Co was a major British glassmaking house, spanning six generations. The company was established in 1824 by Robert Lucas Chance [1782 more...
Chance Brothers & Co was a major British glassmaking house, spanning six generations. The company was established in 1824 by Robert Lucas Chance [1782-1865], initially as a manufacturer of blown window glass. Robert Chance purchased the British Crown Glass Co site in Spon Lane, Smethwick, near Birmingham and was joined by brothers William and George in 1832, going on to manufacture the first British cylinder blown sheet glass. Investment in industrial developments also resulted in finer quality sheets, produced in larger sized panes than were previously available. By 1836 the firm was trading as Chance Brothers & Company, with the addition of William's son James Timmins Chance, who later headed the firm until his retirement in 1889. The business then became a public company, trading as Chance Brothers & Co Ltd and enjoying market dominance well into the 20th century. In 1945 the Pilkington firm acquired 50% of Chance shares, resulting in the business continuing as a Pilkington subsidiary and the Smethwick site eventually closing in 1981. By 1992 the firm reformed independently, registering as Chance Glass Limited and using its original company logo.

Chance Brothers & Co participated in the Great Industrial Exhibition of Dublin 1853, the international exhibitions of London 1851, Brussels and Philadelphia 1876 and Antwerp 1894 as well as the Bingley Hall Exhibition, Birmingham 1886, the Yachting and Fisheries Exhibition at the Imperial Institute 1897 and the Physical and Optical Societies Exhibition of 1920. Major commissions included supply of glass for the Great Conservatory at Chatsworth, the Crystal Palace, Houses of Parliament, the Palace of Westminster, the Westminster clock-tower and the ornamental windows for the US White House. Known as major suppliers of lighthouse equipment and optical glass, Chance also manufactured machine rolled patterned glass, vitreous tiles and mosaics, stained glass windows, ornamental lamp shades, microscope glass slides and painted glassware. As this 1867 trade catalogue demonstrates, their product range of decorative glass included a wide variety of designs, including diaper patterns influenced by the Medieval style and decorative panels incorporating floral and foliate motifs, scrolling and grotesques adopted from Arabesque ornament and Roman Classicism. The addition of naturalistic ornament in the form of fruit or birds as well as pictorial scenes further illustrate manufacturing responses, to mid 19th century eclecticism and fashions for Revivalism. The Caroline Simpson Library & Research Collection at the HHT also an 1853 catalogue of designs for coloured ornamental windows from the Glassworks of Chance Brothers & Co.

The company exported worldwide for over a century with shipments to Australia of patent stove fronts, crown, stained, obscured, ornamental and patent rolled rough plate window glass indicated as early as 1844. In NSW importation and sales were handled by local firms such as Brooks of Flinders street and Flint, Ramsey and Co of Little Bourke Street, Sydney. Large sized panes of plate glass were available from c1850 and were generally used for shop windows, with the fitting of complete shop fronts dramatically changing the character of Sydney streets. Large panes of plate glass were also commonly imported for use in prestigious buildings throughout Australia. Although relatively expensive and difficult to transport, sheet glass in all sizes became more common by the early 1860s, replacing the older style multi-paned windows. Various forms of rolled or rough plate glass were designed to be partly or wholly obscured and along with coloured glass, were commonly used for door sidelights in both commercial and domestic applications. Chance also exported stained glass windows, for applications such as those in the E S & A Bank headquarters of Collins Street, Melbourne, built 1883-7. [Marina Grilanc, September 2011]

Terracotta
Terracotta
Domestic architecture. Terra cotta / manufactured by John Marriott Blashfield
The collection of catalogues produced by John Marriott Blashfield between 1868 and 1870 represent a high-point in that manufacturer's production of a more...
The collection of catalogues produced by John Marriott Blashfield between 1868 and 1870 represent a high-point in that manufacturer's production of architectural terracotta and garden ornament. By 1870 Blashfield's range exceeded 1400 separate pieces and he had supplied ornament for numerous prestigious commissions including for Buckingham Palace, the Royal Mausoleum at Windsor and over 5000 pounds worth of goods for Castle Ashby Northamptonshire.

John Marriott Blashfield (1811-1882) spent most of his life building, modeling and manufacturing. During the late 1830s and 1840s some of his ventures included working with Herbert Minton to create mosaic pavements, publishing two books of tile designs by Owen Jones, becoming a building developer on London's prestigious Kensington Palace Gardens, working as a partner of Wyatt Parker & Co, manufacturers of ornament in plaster, mastic, scagliola and cement, and even manufacturing patent artificial manure.

Blashfield's association with terracotta extends back to 1839 when he employed James Bubb, a former Coade stone modeler, to experiment with production techniques. However, he did not return to terracotta until 1851 after being inspired by Mark Blanchard's prize-winning pieces on a visit to London's Great Exhibition. From this time Blashfield enthusiastically embraced the production of terracotta and by 1853 had produced a 9-foot tall statue, 'Australia', for the Crystal Palace gardens in London - the English journal, Builder, claimed it was "probably the largest piece of pottery ever fired in an entire piece." Blashfield's production continued to develop - he obtained Letters Patent in 1854 for 'Improvements in the Manufacture of China, Pottery, Bricks', again in 1860 for 'Improvements in burning pottery and china ware' and in 1866 he even designed and patented a new type of pottery kiln. As early as 1856 The Art Journal stated that Blashfield "has carried this art [terracotta] beyond his competitors." He won medals for Terra Cotta, in the glass and pottery and architectural objects classes at the London International Exhibition in 1862 and a silver medal at the Paris International Exhibition of 1867.

Blashfield's initial manufactory in Millwall, Isle of Dogs, was the former home of Wyatt, Parker & Co, which he had purchased in 1846. From there he produced not only terracotta (from 1851) but cement and plaster goods - in 1858 Sydney-merchant W W Buckland advertised the sale of 'Patent Plaster of Paris, and Portland and Roman cements'. A plaster bust of New South Wales politician John Blaxland (1769-1845), currently held in the collection of the Art Gallery of NSW, was produced by Blashfield. In fact, a number of the moulds and designs used for plaster and cement architectural and ornamental work were redeployed by Blashfield for terracotta. Blashfield himself described many of these designs as being copies of 'ancient' works while others were modern.

In 1859, Blashfield moved his works to Stamford, Lincolnshire to be nearer the clay-beds after which the company concentrated wholly on the production on terracotta. After more than a decade of success, Blashfield was declared bankrupt in 1872. The firm was, however, re-established as a limited liability company and renamed The Stamford Terra-cotta Company (Blashfield's) Limited though Blashfield continued as superintendent of the works. Finally in 1875, the firm went into liquidation unable to compete with cheaper terracotta that required less preparation time to produce. [Michael Lech, September 2011]

The collection of catalogues produced by John Marriott Blashfield between 1868 and 1870 represent a high-point in that manufacturer's production of architectural terracotta and garden ornament. By 1870 Blashfield's range exceeded 1400 separate pieces and he had supplied ornament for numerous prestigious commissions including for Buckingham Palace, the Royal Mausoleum at Windsor and over 5000 pounds worth of goods for Castle Ashby Northamptonshire.

John Marriott Blashfield (1811-1882) spent most of his life building, modeling and manufacturing. During the late 1830s and 1840s some of his ventures included working with Herbert Minton to create mosaic pavements, publishing two books of tile designs by Owen Jones, becoming a building developer on London's prestigious Kensington Palace Gardens, working as a partner of Wyatt Parker & Co, manufacturers of ornament in plaster, mastic, scagliola and cement, and even manufacturing patent artificial manure.

Blashfield's association with terracotta extends back to 1839 when he employed James Bubb, a former Coade stone modeler, to experiment with production techniques. However, he did not return to terracotta until 1851 after being inspired by Mark Blanchard's prize-winning pieces on a visit to London's Great Exhibition. From this time Blashfield enthusiastically embraced the production of terracotta and by 1853 had produced a 9-foot tall statue, 'Australia', for the Crystal Palace gardens in London - the English journal, Builder, claimed it was "probably the largest piece of pottery ever fired in an entire piece." Blashfield's production continued to develop - he obtained Letters Patent in 1854 for 'Improvements in the Manufacture of China, Pottery, Bricks', again in 1860 for 'Improvements in burning pottery and china ware' and in 1866 he even designed and patented a new type of pottery kiln. As early as 1856 The Art Journal stated that Blashfield "has carried this art [terracotta] beyond his competitors." He won medals for Terra Cotta, in the glass and pottery and architectural objects classes at the London International Exhibition in 1862 and a silver medal at the Paris International Exhibition of 1867.

Blashfield's initial manufactory in Millwall, Isle of Dogs, was the former home of Wyatt, Parker & Co, which he had purchased in 1846. From there he produced not only terracotta (from 1851) but cement and plaster goods - in 1858 Sydney-merchant W W Buckland advertised the sale of 'Patent Plaster of Paris, and Portland and Roman cements'. A plaster bust of New South Wales politician John Blaxland (1769-1845), currently held in the collection of the Art Gallery of NSW, was produced by Blashfield. In fact, a number of the moulds and designs used for plaster and cement architectural and ornamental work were redeployed by Blashfield for terracotta. Blashfield himself described many of these designs as being copies of 'ancient' works while others were modern.

In 1859, Blashfield moved his works to Stamford, Lincolnshire to be nearer the clay-beds after which the company concentrated wholly on the production on terracotta. After more than a decade of success, Blashfield was declared bankrupt in 1872. The firm was, however, re-established as a limited liability company and renamed The Stamford Terra-cotta Company (Blashfield's) Limited though Blashfield continued as superintendent of the works. Finally in 1875, the firm went into liquidation unable to compete with cheaper terracotta that required less preparation time to produce. [Michael Lech, September 2011]

Tiles
Tiles
Designs for tesselated and encaustic tile pavements / manufactured by the Australian Roman Mosaics Tile Works
John Cartlidge & Son was one of a small number of Australian makers of tessellated and encaustic tiles during the later 19th and early 20th centuries. more...
John Cartlidge & Son was one of a small number of Australian makers of tessellated and encaustic tiles during the later 19th and early 20th centuries. The company's clay pits, factory and office were located in what is now the Melbourne suburb of Malvern. The tessellated and geometric floor tiles the company supplied were ubiquitous in Australian homes of the period, used most notably for verandahs, internal entrance halls and passageways.

The business was originally started by Henry Atkinson Cawkwell (c.1821-1894) possibly as early as 1855. By 1859 Cawkwell was advertising the sale of agricultural drain pipes and in 1861 he displayed Gothic terra cotta tracery and window architraves as well as drain pipes, flooring tiles, gutter bricks and tiles at the Victorian Industrial Exhibition. It may not have been until the 1870s that Cawkwell began to produce encaustic or inlaid floor tiles, but he was still one of the earliest manufacturers of these floor tiles in Australia.

Cawkwell built up a successful business, winning awards for his tiles and other wares at numerous exhibitions including the Melbourne International Exhibitions of 1880/81 and 1888/89. A handful of commissions are known, including the entrance foyer of the former Victorian Railways Head Office building in Spencer Street Melbourne, 'Stonington' in Malvern and 'Purrumbete Homestead' in Victoria's Western District. At the height of the building boom around 1890 Cawkwell employed around 60 workers, but the depression of the early 1890s almost brought the works to a stand still.

When Cawkwell died, the business was purchased by John Cartlidge (c.1863-1943) who along with his half-brother Samuel had worked for Cawkwell for at least 15 years. The Cartlidges were raised in Stoke-on-Trent, the pottery hub of England, where the family had been involved in the tile-making trade. The British census for 1871 lists their father, Samuel, as a 'tile maker'.

The full-colour, handsomely-produced Cartlidge catalogue compares favourably to similar English catalogues of the period and demonstrates that the company recovered and prospered into the 20th century. The catalogue is undated but addresses and descriptions suggest a publication date around 1914. The range of patterns had expanded since Cawkwell's day, though some designs were still the same as more than 30 years previously. The business finally ceased trading in 1926. (Michael Lech, September 2011)

Malkin Edge & Co. / Malkin Edge & Co.
James Malkin and Joseph Edge formed Malkin Edge & Co in 1870, producing architectural tiles with patterned, printed and glazed decoration for the more...
James Malkin and Joseph Edge formed Malkin Edge & Co in 1870, producing architectural tiles with patterned, printed and glazed decoration for the mass market. The Patent Encaustic Tile Works was situated at Newport Works, Newport Lane, Burslem, a town in the area known as the Staffordshire Potteries, or modern day Stoke-on-Trent. Benefitting from abundant supplies of clay and coal and the Trent and Mersey canal providing a vital transportation link, the area had long dominated the British tile manufacturing industry. Family associations through the Wesleyan Methodist Church led to the marriage of James Malkin to the daughter of Joseph Edge, solidifying the business partnership. The firm opened their London office showroom at 29 Sandringham Buildings, Charing Cross Road in 1888, having by then been awarded a bronze medal at the Calcutta International Exhibition of 1884. James Malkin became the sole partner of the business after the death of Joseph Edge in 1894 and changed the name to Malkin Tile Works & Co Ltd. At this time Sydney and Elija Malkin had joined their father's company and would later go on to trade under the name of Malkin Tiles, until the business was finally sold in 1968 to the Johnson Richards Group. Malkin Edge & Co participated in the British export trade to Australia and like some other manufacturers, used the services of an Australian agent to market their products. Advertisements in the Sydney Morning Herald from 1885 to1888 indicate J.Barre Johnston of 30 Loftus Street, Macquarie Place, Sydney as the sole agent for the company. The Australian market for Malkin Edge & Co was boosted by their representation at the Centennial International Exhibition, Melbourne 1889-90, with Essex R. Picot Ltd the Sydney and Melbourne agent eventually representing Malkin Tiles into the 1920s. Trade catalogues provided a cost-effective form of merchandising, particularly for overseas markets and as this example demonstrates, could be comprised of pages taken from a number of company publications. Grouped from listings that spanned a number of years, this c1885 version contains pages with 1884 date stamps and varying types of paper and fonts, suggesting ongoing sales of particular tiles and the re-use of printed material to limit printing expenses. The catalogue illustrates the diversity of applications suited to architectural ceramics and provided architects, builders and designers with the means to customise tiling schemes. Although encaustic and geometric pavements were initially marketed for use in churches and grand entrance halls or conservatories, the company also responded to the prevailing middle class tastes and economic trends of the day. This was reflected in the variety of glazed tiles available in different price ranges, including tessellated, enameled, majolica, embossed and art-painted pictorials. The firm specialised in slabbed hearths, fireplaces and surrounds and offered a wide choice in their decorative finishes. These were popularised during the late Victorian period and continued to be widely used in Australia for Federation houses of the early 20th century. [Marina Grilanc, September 2011] James Malkin and Joseph Edge formed Malkin Edge & Co in 1870, producing architectural tiles with patterned, printed and glazed decoration for the mass market. The Patent Encaustic Tile Works was situated at Newport Works, Newport Lane, Burslem, a town in the area known as the Staffordshire Potteries, or modern day Stoke-on-Trent. Benefitting from abundant supplies of clay and coal and the Trent and Mersey canal providing a vital transportation link, the area had long dominated the British tile manufacturing industry. Family associations through the Wesleyan Methodist Church led to the marriage of James Malkin to the daughter of Joseph Edge, solidifying the business partnership. The firm opened their London office showroom at 29 Sandringham Buildings, Charing Cross Road in 1888, having by then been awarded a bronze medal at the Calcutta International Exhibition of 1884. James Malkin became the sole partner of the business after the death of Joseph Edge in 1894 and changed the name to Malkin Tile Works & Co Ltd. At this time Sydney and Elija Malkin had joined their father's company and would later go on to trade under the name of Malkin Tiles, until the business was finally sold in 1968 to the Johnson Richards Group. Malkin Edge & Co participated in the British export trade to Australia and like some other manufacturers, used the services of an Australian agent to market their products. Advertisements in the Sydney Morning Herald from 1885 to1888 indicate J.Barre Johnston of 30 Loftus Street, Macquarie Place, Sydney as the sole agent for the company. The Australian market for Malkin Edge & Co was boosted by their representation at the Centennial International Exhibition, Melbourne 1889-90, with Essex R. Picot Ltd the Sydney and Melbourne agent eventually representing Malkin Tiles into the 1920s. Trade catalogues provided a cost-effective form of merchandising, particularly for overseas markets and as this example demonstrates, could be comprised of pages taken from a number of company publications. Grouped from listings that spanned a number of years, this c1885 version contains pages with 1884 date stamps and varying types of paper and fonts, suggesting ongoing sales of particular tiles and the re-use of printed material to limit printing expenses. The catalogue illustrates the diversity of applications suited to architectural ceramics and provided architects, builders and designers with the means to customise tiling schemes. Although encaustic and geometric pavements were initially marketed for use in churches and grand entrance halls or conservatories, the company also responded to the prevailing middle class tastes and economic trends of the day. This was reflected in the variety of glazed tiles available in different price ranges, including tessellated, enameled, majolica, embossed and art-painted pictorials. The firm specialised in slabbed hearths, fireplaces and surrounds and offered a wide choice in their decorative finishes. These were popularised during the late Victorian period and continued to be widely used in Australia for Federation houses of the early 20th century. [Marina Grilanc, September 2011]
Wallpaper
Wallpaper
Embossed flock papers / manufactured by Wm. Woollams & Co., 110 High St. near Manchester Square W. London
Wm Woollams & Co. was an English wallpaper manufacturer famous for its hand made and flock papers. The company was begun by William Woollams as early more...
Wm Woollams & Co. was an English wallpaper manufacturer famous for its hand made and flock papers. The company was begun by William Woollams as early as 1807 and remained in family hands until being wound up in 1900. By the second half of the 19th century, Wm Woollams & Co often won plaudits for its designs and had become noted as an innovator in the production of new types of wall coverings including stamped gold papers, embossed leather papers, and a moulded or embossed flock wallpaper. Prior to 1890, the firm had won 18 medals at international exhibitions, fairs and expositions around the world, including the Sydney International Exhibition of 1879/80 and the Melbourne International Exhibition of 1880/81.

The wallpapers from this sample book were almost certainly displayed at the Sydney International Exhibition. The official report described Wm Woollams & Co's exhibit of 'flock papers, plain and embossed, embossed leather papers, etc' as 'elegant in design and nicely finished'. This boxed sample book comprises just 11 samples, each individually mounted on cardboard, the reverse of which (on most samples) includes a pattern number, price per yard, manufacturer trade mark (a bale of wool branded W and two lambs suspended) and address, while similar details are also hand written in French. Eight of the samples are embossed flock and three are a different type of embossed wall covering, one in imitation of leather and two with a plain white finish.

The embossed flock decorations were patented by Wm Woollams & Co in 1877. Instead of being designed like traditional flock to imitate cut velvet hangings commonly used in houses of the wealthy, embossed flock was moulded under pressure with a heated die to produce a vast range of designs. In the English Art Journal for 1883, G.T. Robinson wrote that "Messrs W. Woollams supply a very ingenious embossed flock of considerable relief and great richness, simulating, indeed, modelled plasterwork in its surface, and capable of almost infinite variety in its colour treatment." During this period, flock wallpapers were generally recommended for dining rooms and libraries. Flock remained popular in well-to-do homes until the late 19th century when its tendency to collect dust and retain odours, such as from food, caused a backlash at a time when health and cleanliness in the home became a priority.

The other embossed wall coverings, including the one in imitation of leather, represent a fashion towards the use of relief wall coverings in English and Australian interiors in the last quarter of the 19th century. The hand written descriptions in French to the reverse of these samples describes them as being Coriacène. This description was most likely added some time after this sample book was issued as the brand name Coriacène was not in use until the late 1880s. These wall coverings had no brand name during the 1870s, but by the mid 1880s, Wm Woollams & Co was using the brand name Tergorine for its embossed artificial leather wall coverings. By 1890, the English Building news & engineering journal described Coriacène as a "richly-modelled imitation of embossed leather, to which the raised parts are hardened" many are lacquered a rich brown, well suited for dados." [Michael Lech, September 2011]